COVID-19 Related Muscle Loss:
In an article published in Science Magazine last week titled “For survivors of severe COVID-19, beating the virus is just the beginning”, Dr. Dale Needham, Professor of Medicine and Medical Director, Critical Care Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Program, Johns Hopkins University discussed COVID-19 related muscle atrophy .
“Those who survive a long period on a ventilator are prone to muscle atrophy and weakness. Keeping a critically ill patient moving—raising their arms and legs, and eventually helping them sit up, stand, and walk—can reduce that weakness and get them off the ventilator faster. But because SARS-CoV-2 is so infectious, bringing rehab specialists into patients’ rooms can be a challenge,”Dr. Needham
Because COVID-19 is such a new disease, there are no peer reviewed clinical studies on COVID-19 related muscle loss at the current time. However, it is well known that inflammation plays a major role in muscle loss [2-4] and there is a massive inflammatory response associated with COVID-19, often referred to as a “cytokine storm” .
The Impact of Muscle Loss:
Elevated Mortality Risk:
- In a prospective cohort human clinical trial involving 8,762 men (20-80 years old) conducted at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, muscular strength was found to be inversely proportional to death from all causes .
- In an observational study involving 3,241 women diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer, researchers at Harvard Medical School/Brigham & Women’s Hospital found that women with age-related muscle loss known as sarcopenia had a significantly elevated risk of mortality relative to women that were not sarcopenic .
Reduced ICU Survival:
COVID-19 has placed a massive strain on ICU bed capacity and the demand for ventilators throughout the world.
- Researchers at Likou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan reported that among critically ill patients in the ICU, sarcopenia was associated with increased mortality risk. Sarcopenia was also a predictor of patients becoming ‘difficult to wean’ when placed on ventilators .
Elevated Disability Risk:
- Researchers at the University of Michigan found that subjects (n=8,275 study sample) with muscle weakness as measured by grip strength are at 54% greater risk of suffering an activities of daily living (ADL) disability relative to subjects without muscle weakness .
- In a meta-analysis conducted by researchers at the University of Melbourne, it was concluded that muscle loss is associated with increased risk of falls in the elderly . For elderly people, falls can be devastating if they result in a bone fracture.
Fortetropin®: Advanced Nutrition to Address Muscle Loss
Fortetropin® is an advanced nutrition product made from fertilized chicken egg yolk using a patented, low temperature manufacturing process [11,12] that helps to better retain the natural bioactivity of the proteins, peptides and lipids that are found to be present within fertilized, chicken egg yolk.
- In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled human clinical trial conducted at the University of California, Berkeley, Fortetropin® has been shown to increase the rate of muscle protein synthesis in men and women between 60-75 years of age .
- According to a preprint published by Researchers at the University of Bern, older adults are most impacted by COVID-19 in terms of hospitalizations and mortality based on data analyzed from Hubei Province and Northern Italy .
- In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study involving 45 men between 18-21 years of age conducted at the University of Tampa, daily consumption of Fortetropin® has been shown to lead to gains in muscle size and strength .
- In a preclinical study involving 100 dogs recovering from TPLO surgery conducted at Kansas State University, daily consumption of Fortetropin® led to reduced muscle atrophy and improved recovery in dogs . Based on these results, a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled human clinical trial has been initiated at McMaster University to examine the impact of Fortetropin® on disuse atrophy in young men using the unilateral leg immobilization model .
Learn more about how Fortetropin® can help improve your muscle health at www.yolked.com.
- Meng, Si-Jin, and Long-Jiang Yu. “Oxidative stress, molecular inflammation and sarcopenia.” International journal of molecular sciences 11.4 (2010): 1509-1526.
- Jensen, Gordon L. “Inflammation: roles in aging and sarcopenia.” Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition 32.6 (2008): 656-659.
- Deans, Christopher, and Stephen J. Wigmore. “Systemic inflammation, cachexia and prognosis in patients with cancer.” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care 8.3 (2005): 265-269.
- Mehta, Puja, et al. “COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression.” The Lancet (2020).
- Ruiz, Jonatan R., et al. “Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study.” Bmj 337 (2008): a439.
- Caan, Bette J., et al. “Association of muscle and adiposity measured by computed tomography with survival in patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer.” JAMA oncology 4.6 (2018): 798-804.
- Kou HW, Yeh CH, Tsai HI, Hsu CC, Hsieh YC, Chen WT, Cheng HT, Yu MC, Lee CW. Sarcopenia is an effective predictor of difficult-to-wean and mortality among critically ill surgical patients. PloS one. 2019;14(8).
- Duchowny, Kate A., P. J. Clarke, and Mark D. Peterson. “Muscle weakness and physical disability in older Americans: longitudinal findings from the US Health and Retirement Study.” The journal of nutrition, health & aging 22.4 (2018): 501-507.
- Yeung, Suey SY, et al. “Sarcopenia and its association with falls and fractures in older adults: A systematic review and meta‐analysis.” Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle 10.3 (2019): 485-500.
- Buxmann, Waldermar, et al. “Process for producing a composition for increasing muscle mass.” U.S. Patent # 10,165,785, Issue Date: January 1, 2019.
- Buxmann, Waldermar, et al. “Process for producing a composition containing active follistatin.” U.S. Patent #8,815,320, Issue Date: August 26, 2014.
- Evans, William J., et al. “Effects of Fortetropin® on the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older men and women: a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled study.” J. Gerontol Med Sci, submitted.
- Riou, Julien, et al. “COVID-19 EPIDEMIC IN HUBEI, CHINA, JANUARY AND FEBRUARY 2020.” (2020). https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.04.20031104v2
- Sharp, Matthew H., et al. “The effects of fortetropin supplementation on body composition, strength, and power in humans and mechanism of action in a rodent model.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 35.8 (2016): 679-691.
- White, Dana A., et al. “Fortetropin inhibits disuse muscle atrophy in dogs after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.” PloS one 15.4 (2020): e0231306.
- Rakobowchuk, Mark, et al. “Short-term unilateral leg immobilization alters peripheral but not central arterial structure and function in healthy young humans.” European journal of applied physiology 111.2 (2011): 203-210.